Beliefs about medicines questionnaire (BMQ) Horne, Weinman, Hankins, () Psychology and Health, 14, BMQ –Specific. Your views about medicines. This paper presents a novel method for assessing cognitive representations of medication: the Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire (BMQ). The BMQ-Specific assesses representations of medication prescribed for personal use and the BMQ-General assesses beliefs about medicines in general.

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The BMQ-General comprises 8 items which are subdivided into two sub-scales.

Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire (BMQ)

Developing test score reports that work: Italian Argentero et al. The draft in the Maltese language was checked for minor errors that might have been disregarded during the translation process by the principal investigator and a colleague.

Back translation The Maltese version was back translated to English by a certified beliiefs who had no access to the original version of the BMQ, since reversibility is crucial to equivalence. Sampling strategy Patients were recruited through the outpatient clinics, of the main general hospital, in Malta, between July and September In the original and German version, item G4 qudstionnaire on both the overuse and the harm scale.

BMQ – Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire

This editing process was needed to create a Maltese text which is maximally suitable for the intended patients. The back translation was reviewed abot the English version so as to ensure conceptual equivalence of the translation carried out, avoiding mistranslations and translation losses which would render an incomplete replication of the source questionnaire in the target msdicines.

Table 9 Comparisons of Internal consistency alpha values obtained in the Maltese study with the original and others published in different languages. The development and evaluation of a new method for assessing the cognitive representation of medication. Questiionnaire forward translation was discussed and revised for better harmonisation of concepts in the instrument, with the intention of capturing the conceptual meaning of the items. Curr Pharm Teach Learn. Ohio State University; Table 8 Principal component analysis carried out on individual sub-scales to confirm factor loading.


This was done to ensure a translation which was linguistically, culturally and contextually appropriate thereby avoiding the pitfalls described in bbeliefs paper highlighting issues identified in the three Scandinavian versions of the BMQ.

In the case of the Specific-concerns factor, all items loaded on the concerns factor, however items S6 My medicines are a mystery to me and S8 My medicines disrupt my life gave higher loadings on the General harm factor. A total of patients were approached in order to recruit the necessary patients per chronic illness group.

The patients selected were those with a confirmed diagnosis of asthma, diabetes, depression or cardiovascular disease. This is the first study to assess psychometric properties of the BMQ in the Maltese language.

To our knowledge, a validated tool to assess adherence to medicines is not available in the Maltese language. Cognitive debriefing results and finalisation Finalisation of the translation allowed for any necessary modifications or rewording of the items.

Thus, alpha was recalculated first by eliminating G8 from the scale, then by eliminating G4 from the scale in order to see the differences between both responses. There is in fact a tendency for healthcare professionals to be weary of them, due to the fear that patients would stop using the prescribed conventional medicine altogether in favour of natural remedies. However, anecdotally, when taking the items into consideration, G5 Medicines do more harm than good might have loaded on the overuse scale as patients might associate harm to be directly related to over-prescription, whereas G7 Doctors trust medicines too much might lead patients to assume that too much trust in medicines by practitioners leads to over-prescription and overuse, which could in turn lead to adverse effects which might be harmful.


Lawrence Erlbaum Associates; Tavakol M, Denick R.

Support Center Support Center. Sao Paulo Med J. The General-Harm sub-scale assesses beliefs about how harmful medicines are and the General-Overuse sub-scale addresses the concept of over-prescription of medication by doctors who place too much trust in them.

Allyn and Bacon; During the analysis of alpha, items G4 Natural remedies are safer than medicines and G8 If doctors had more time questionnaore patients they would prescribe fewer medicines resulted in unexpectedly lower values. Sample size determination A target sample size of patients per disease group was established. Due to the nature of the items loading, component 1 was identified as the General-overuse scale, with the items developed as representative of the quwstionnaire scale, G1, G4, G7, G8 all loaded on component 1.

In Malta, natural remedies – also referred to as complementary alternative medication CAMare relatively novel and more likely to appeal to a younger generation in Malta.

Articles from Pharmacy Practice are provided here courtesy of Centro de Investigaciones y Publicaciones Meducines.

Spanish Tordera et al. Item loadings Table 6 and Table 7showed a varied outcome with items from one sub-scale loading elsewhere. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Maltese nationality; taking medication for their condition for at least two months; and being 18 years of age and over.